In a small city in the Shandong province, within a day's drive of Shanghai, Beijing, Xi'an, and Zhengzhou, you'll find the birthing and resting place of the eminent philosopher, Confucius. The Temple of Confucius (his former house and a place of prayer for Chinese emperors), the Cemetery of Confucius (where he and his descendants have been buried), and the Kong Mansion (where his family, bestowed with nobility, lived until the 20th century) are collectively called San Kong. The temple and mansion are located within the walls of the traditional city of Qufu, while the cemetery is located just to the north.
While in town, it would not be a bad idea to explore some of the ancient architecture that still remains about the old city center, as well as possibly make a trek out to Mount Ni, where it is generally believed that Confucius was born. You may also want to visit the provincial capital of Jinan, which is regionally famous for its dozens of artesian wells and may be reached in two hours by bus. Whatever else you choose to do, an opportunity to experience the artifacts and attractions left behind by the Eastern world's most influential philosopher is not to be missed.