When speaking in terms of culture, the islands of Mallorca and Menorca are a true mishmash of conquering cultures, with everything from Roman ruins to Arab baths to Georgian mansions to cathedrals to a Christian god. Most landmarks of note are located in Mallorca, but there are some archaeological sites on Menorca worth looking into. As far as the island of Ibiza, it is covered in its own section.
We'll start with Mallorca because the most prominent cultural area in the islands is its capital city, Palma de Mallorca. It is home to a well-maintained old city, where palm fronds provide shade to narrow boulevards, and landmarks abound. The most famous is the Catedral de Mallorca, a large Gothic building near the water that also includes a small on-site museum. The Banys Àrabs, a 10th century Arab bath on Carrer de Serra, is worth the nominal fee, while a walk through the bull ring on the Avenue de Gaspar Bennazar can be interesting even when there aren't events scheduled. The Castel de Bellver is a 14th century castle on a hill overlooking the ocean and, along with providing great views, is worth seeing for its unique, circular layout. There are also a number of attractive squares in the city, most notable of which are the Plaza Major and Plaza Mercat. For lovers of contemporary art, including masters like Picasso and Dali, the Museo de Arte Español Contemporáneo in Sant Miquel is also an option.
Outside of Palma, there are other worthwhile cultural landmarks worth inclusion in your itinerary. La Cartuja (the Royal Charterhouse) is an old monastery in the Serra de Tramuntana mountain range known for the temporary residency of Chopin and George Sand; check it out in the village of Valldemossa. There are few other notable landmarks on the island in the usual cultural sense, although there are a few picturesque coastal towns (Cala Figuera, for one) amidst the resort development that has occurred increasingly over the last half of a century.
Menorca, the quieter of the two islands, has a few important, ancient sites from the Talayot era (over 3,000 years old) for travelers to discover. The ruins of Capocorb Vell on Mallorca are the most extensive, but the ruins of Torre d'en Galmés near Son Bou and Trepucó near the city of Maó are both legitimate ruins in Menorca. There are also numerous navetas on the island, ancient burial structures also over 3,000 years old; the largest and most well-aged is the Naveta d'Es Tudons near the town of Ciutadella. For more recent culture, the capital, Mao, on the island's eastern point, has enough Georgian architecture from its British occupation, pedestrian streets, and pleasant squares (the Plaza de la Conquesta, for one) in its historic center to deserve a good day of looking around. It's harbor is also notable for being the second deepest on Earth, as well as a great place to kick back and relax. Also worth mentioning is the town of Ciutadella on the western end. It is also worth seeing for its many Italian-inspired, 17th century buildings and its lovely port.
As always, we're just scratching the surface when we summarize, especially when we're talking about two whole islands. To get a better understanding of what's on tap in Mallorca and Menorca, take a look through our activity pages, travel videos, or even talk with the embark community.